The SSIS team blogged about executing packages deployed to the SSIS Catalog using DTEXEC a while ago. The post mentions the $ServerOption::SYNCHRONIZED parameter as a way to control whether the execution is synchronous or asynchronous, but there are some other server options you can set as well. Phil Brammer actually blogged about the options last year. You can also see the full list of options when you view the SSIS Catalog Execution report (note the Parameters Used section in the screenshot below).
These options can be specified on the command line when you run a catalog package with DTExec. For example, to change the logging level to VERBOSE (3) for a specific execution, you’d add the following to your dtexec command:
More information on logging levels can be found here.